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Classification in Library Science

Classification in Library Science

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Classification in library science is the process of organizing and categorizing library materials such as books, periodicals, audiovisual materials, and other resources based on subject content. The purpose of classification is to provide a standardized and systematic approach to organizing library materials so that they can be easily located and retrieved by library users.

There are several classification systems used in library science, including the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and the Library of Congress Classification (LCC). The DDC is the most widely used system in the world and is primarily used in public libraries, while the LCC is used in academic libraries.

The DDC is based on ten main subject areas, and each of these areas is assigned a numerical code. The LCC, on the other hand, is based on letters of the alphabet, and each letter represents a subject area. Both systems use a combination of numbers and letters to create a unique call number for each item in the library's collection.

Classification in library science also includes cataloging, which involves creating bibliographic records for library materials, including information such as the title, author, subject, and call number. Cataloging provides an additional level of organization and makes it easier for library users to search for and locate specific items in the library's collection.

DDC : Dewey Decimal Classification

DDC stands for Dewey Decimal Classification, a system of organizing and classifying library materials developed by Melvil Dewey in 1876. The Dewey Decimal Classification system assigns a unique numeric code to each subject area, allowing library materials to be organized and located easily.

The Dewey Decimal Classification system consists of ten main classes, each of which is divided into ten divisions. Each division is then further subdivided into ten sections, and so on. The main classes include:

  • 000 Generalities
  • 100 Philosophy and psychology
  • 200 Religion
  • 300 Social sciences
  • 400 Language
  • 500 Natural sciences and mathematics
  • 600 Technology
  • 700 The arts
  • 800 Literature and rhetoric
  • 900 History and geography

Each of these main classes is then further divided into increasingly specific subject areas, with each subject area assigned a unique numeric code. For example, the subject area of "dogs" is assigned the code 636.7 within the 600 class (technology).

The Dewey Decimal Classification system is used in libraries around the world and is considered one of the most widely used classification systems in the world. It is especially useful for public libraries, school libraries, and small to medium-sized academic libraries.

CC: Colon Classification

CC or Colon Classification is a system of library classification developed by S.R. Ranganathan, an Indian librarian and mathematician, in 1933. It is a faceted classification system that uses facets (aspects or characteristics) of a subject to create a classification number. The facets are the following:

  1. Personality (who)
  2. Matter (what)
  3. Energy (how much)
  4. Space (where)
  5. Time (when)
  6. Language (by what means)
  7. Topics (about what)

Each facet is represented by a symbol, and the combination of these symbols creates a classification number that represents the subject. For example, the classification number for "plant taxonomy" would be PN3 (P for "matter", N for "plants", and 3 for "taxonomy").

CC also uses a hierarchy of classes, with the top-level classes being the following:

  1. Universe
  2. Matter
  3. Energy
  4. Space
  5. Time
  6. Language
  7. Man

Each class is then divided into divisions, sections, and subsections, based on the facets of the subject. The hierarchy of classes and the faceted approach make CC a highly flexible and adaptable classification system that can be used for a wide range of subjects.

CC is widely used in libraries in India and other parts of the world, particularly in South Asia. It is also used in some specialized libraries and research institutions.

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